The Sindhu Saraswati (Indus) Valley Civilization:  

The World’s First Democracy

At the end of the Ice Age, when the world thawed and the ice retreated, nomads settled in fertile river valleys where they grew crops, raised animals and traded surplus food for pottery and tools. Small settlements grew into villages, villages into towns, and towns into city-states ruled by Pharaohs in Egypt, kings in Mesopotamia and emperors in China.  Only in the Sindhu Valley did democracy rule. 


Sindhu Saraswati Museum

Sindhu At-A-Glance


The Word “Sindhu”

Indus River


Harappa, Indus Valley Civilization MapAt it’s peak (from 2600 – 1900 BC), the Sindhu Saraswati Valley Civilization — also known as the Harappan Civilization — consisted of over 5 million people living in 2,000 settlements and cities.